Clinical Signs. Symptoms. ADHD Signs.
In most cases the disorder manifests itself before the age of 4, but the final diagnosis cannot be made until the age of 8-10 years. In some cases (such as attention deficit disorder), it may not be diagnosed until adolescence.
The main symptoms of ADHD are lack of attention, irascibility and hyperactivity. At the same time, each type of ADHD has its own signs.
Symptoms of attention deficit (inattention): the child often makes careless mistakes, ignoring details; does not listen when spoken to; often loses things; forgetful. He/she has difficulty maintaining attention for long periods, completing a task or following instructions.
Symptoms of hyperactivity involve excessive motor activity. The child usually cannot sit in one place for long; often runs and climbs when it is inappropriate; cannot play quietly; talks a lot; yells out answers to incomplete questions; and is constantly distracted.
Impulsivity is explained as hasty actions that can have negative consequences. For example, children crossing the street without looking around, or teenagers/adults who suddenly drop out of school/work without thinking about the consequences.
The nature of such disorders interferes with the ability to reason and express oneself coherently, reduces motivation to go to school and adaptation to social life.
The consequences of ADHD are difficult adaptation to the team, the frequency of accidental injuries, conflict, mood swings.
Concomitant (comorbid) conditions:
- Learning disability (despite normal intelligence, the problem exists in 20-50% of children with ADHD)
- tic disorders
- speech/behavioral disorders
- anxiety, phobic disorders
In some children, symptoms disappear as they grow older. However, in most people will have them in adulthood.
Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder are diagnosed based on a combination of the symptoms listed above. Moreover, these symptoms must seriously interfere with at least two major areas of the person's life, such as school, home, or other environments (e.g., extracurricular activities). In addition, they must be persistent for at least 6 months and have a negative impact on the person's social, intellectual or occupational functioning.
There are no specific (laboratory, instrumental) examinations that would be particularly helpful in making a diagnosis. The physician determines whether the behavioral problems are permanent and require treatment. This can be done by a clinical examination of the child, as well as by talking to parents or teachers.
Some people are not diagnosed with ADHD until they are older.